India has a long and ancient mathematical tradition. This tradition of mathematical research was revived by famous mathematician Ramanujan in the 20th century. The Government has established several schools of excellence for the enhancement of career in mathematics.
Now for those deeply interested in the subject it is much easier to build a satisfying career in mathematics. There are several opportunities for those with mathematics degree outside academia. Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), National Aeronautics Limited, (NAL), all employ mathematicians in large numbers. Organizations like Society for Electronic Transactions and Security (SETS) are interested in mathematicians with training in systems ensuring the safety of our credit card transactions that are based on some very sophisticated mathematics. Financial mathematics is another area that leads to well-paid jobs. Some computer giants like the IBM and Microsoft have research departments which have highly paid scientists who are mathematicians. So there is plenty of scope for mathematicians these days. Mind you all are very well-paid jobs.